589,127

PATENT SPECIFICATION

Application Date: Oct. 10, 1941.

Complete Left: Oct. 9, 1942.

Complete Accepted: June 12, 1947.

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PROVISIONAL SPECIFICATION

Improvements in or relating to Apparatus for Generating Electrical Impulses

I, ALAN DOWER BLUMLEIN, a British Subject of 37, The Ridings, Ealing, London, W.5., do hereby declare the nature of this invention to be as follows:-

The present invention relates to apparatus for generating electrical impulses.

It is frequency necessary to apply the electrical impulses of high voltage and short duration to apparatus such as, for example, radio transmitters used for transmitting short pulses of radio frequency oscillations in the detection of reflecting objects such as aircraft.

It is the objet of the present invention to provided an improved apparatus for generating electrical impulses of high voltage and short duration.

According to the present invention there is provided apparatus comprising a load which in operation requires to be fed with electrical impulses of short duration and high voltage and means for feeding such impulses to said load, said means comprising a storage device comprising a capacity, charging means for feeding energy to said device and reversing means for reversing the polarity of the voltage across said device, the arrangement being such that in operation energy is fed to said device, the voltage across said device is then reversed and the energy in said device is then rapidly dissipated in said load to provide said impulses.

Preferably, said storage device comprises a time delay network and said reversing means comprises means arranged to short circuit one end of said network.

Preferably, said apparatus is used in combination with other apparatus similar thereto but not having revering means so as to provide impulses of greater voltage without necessitating the use of components capable of withstanding said greater voltage.

In order that the invention may be more fully understood, it will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:-

Figure 1 shows the schematic circuit diagram of one form of the invention utilising a time delay network for reversing the polarity of the voltage of the impulses.

Figure 2 shows the schematic circuit diagram of an alternative arrangement for reversing the polarity of the voltage of the impulses, and

Figures 3 and 4 shows the schematic circuit diagrams of arrangements utilising two time delay networks for generating voltage impulses of greater amplitude.

It has been suggested to employ apparatus for generating electrical impulses of high voltage but short duration which comprises a time delay network having series inductance elements and shunt capacity elements, means for charging said capacity elements and switching means for connecting a load in shunt with said network, the arrangement being such that when in operation the said capacity elements change and said load is thereafter connected in hunt with said network by said switching means, a voltage drop arises at the end of said network to which said load is connected and propagates to the other end thereof, where it is reflected in opposite sense and on its return gives rise to further voltage drop at its end, which causes the voltage set up across said load be said delay network, to fall substantially to zero. Said switching means is preferably a unilaterally conducting device of low impedance such as a device known by the registered trademark "Thyratron" and the impedance of said load is arranged to be a little lower than the characteristic impedance of said network so that the voltage of said network falls to a negative value when said reflected voltage wave returns, and thus causes said uni-laterally conducting device to become non-conducting so as to disconnect said load from said network.

Since, in the arrangement above referred to, the impedance of the load is preferably of the same order as the characteristic impedance of the network, the voltage developed across the load will only be approximately half of the voltage to which said network is charged, so that the uni-laterally conducting device must be capable of withstanding the full voltage to which the network is charged, in other words, substantially twice the voltage developed across the load. Further, since the uni-laterally conducting device is connected in a series with the load, the electrodes of said device are in operation at inconvenient voltages with respect to earth and may give rise to difficulties in regard to the insulation of input transformers and cathode heating transformers, etc.

It is the object of the present invention to overcome these disadvantages.

Referring now to Figure 1 of the accompanying drawings, it will be seen that the arrangement shown comprises a time delay network having shunt capacity elements 1 and series inductance elements 2, a load 3 connected to one end of said network, said load 3 being shown diagrammatically as a magnetron short wave oscillator, and a short circuiting device 4, consisting of a low impedance gas discharge tube such as that known under the registered trademark "Thyratron", connected across the other end of said network. Also connected to the same end of said network as said short circuiting device is a uni-laterally conducting device 5 in series with the winding 6 of a transformer to which is coupled a further winding 7 connected to a source of alternating voltage (not shown). The grid circuit of the device 4 includes transformer secondary 8 coupled to a further transformer primary 9 which is connected to a source of switching pulses (not shown). The cathode of the device 4 and the anode of the device 3 are earthed and one plate of each of the shunt condensers 1 of the network is also earthed.

The arrangement operates as follows. When the voltage developed across the inductance 6 is positive, current flows through the device 5 and charges the capacities 1 of the time delay network. After said capacities have been charged and the voltage across the inductance 6 has become negative to render the device 5 non-conducing, a switching pulse is applied to the grid of the device 4 and causes the anode impedance of said device to fall to a very low value. The voltage across the left hand end of said time delay network thus falls rapidly to zero and this falling voltage propagates as a wave along the said network from left to right. On reaching the right hand end of said network, said voltage wave would in the absence of said load 3 be reflected as a negative voltage wave of equal amplitude so that the voltage across the right hand end of said network would fall from V to -V, V being the voltage to which the capacity 1 of said network was originally charged. The device 3 is, however, so connected that it will absorb energy when the voltage across the right hand end of said en4twork becomes negative and the energy of the negative voltage impulse developed as a result of the reflection of the wave is therefore absorbed by said device 3 and causes said device to generate a short pulse of radio frequency oscillations.

It will be appreciated that this arrangement has the advantage that the cathode of the device 4 and the anode of the device 3 can be earthed directly, thus avoiding undesirable effects due to stray capacities between these electrodes and earth, and also avoiding the necessity for special insulation of the cathode heating current supply to the device 4.

Referring now to Figure 2 of the drawings, it will be seen that the time delay network comprising elements 1 and 2 of Figure 1 has been replaced by a single capacity 1 and a single inductance 2, the remaining elements of the circuit being numbered to correspond with similar elements in Figure 1. In the arrangement shown in Figure 2, the reversal of the voltage across the condenser 1 is obtained by causing a half cycle of self-oscillation between the capacity 1 and the inductance 2. Thus, the condenser 1 is charged as before through the uni-laterally conducting device 5 and subsequently the device 4 is rendered conducting and the inductance 2 is thereby connected in shunt with the capacity 1 so forming an oscillatory circuit in which an oscillatory current flows as the charge in the capacity 1 discharges through inductance 2. It will be seen that after said oscillatory circuit has preformed a quarter oscillation the voltage across the condenser 1 will reverse in sense and this voltage will then be in a suitable polarity to excite the magnetron 3 and the energy in the system can then be dissipated in said magnetron 3 and cause said magnetron to generate a short pulse of radio frequency oscillations.

It will be appreciated that the apparatus of the kind described above which provides means for reversing the polarity of the voltage across the capacity before the energy is applied to the load may be combined with further apparatus operating with reversal of polarity so as to apply to a load a voltage substantially equal to twice the voltage developed by each apparatus separately. Two example of apparatus of this kind will now be described with reference to Figures 3 and 4 in which elements corresponding to elements in Figures 1 and 2 have been give similar reference numerals. Referring Figure 3, it will be seen that this arrangement differs from that of Figure 1 in that a second time delay network having shunt capacities 1a and series inductance 2a has been introduced. The magnetron 3 has its cathode connected to the right had end of the network comprising elements 1 and 2 as before and has its anode connected to the left hand end of the second delay network comprising capacity elements 1a and the inductance elements 2a. The choke 10 is connected in shunt with the magnetron and is of such a value that it presents an impedance large compared with the impedance of the magnetron 3 at the component frequencies of the pulse waveform which is in operation applied to the magnetron while at the same time presenting a relatively low impedance to currents having a frequency of the same order as that of the charging current for the charging capacity elements 1, 1a.

This arrangement operates as follows. During the charging cycle, current flows through the uni-laterally conducting device 5 and charges the capacities 1 and 1a of the two time delay networks. When the device 4 is rendered conducting, the voltage drop which arises at the left hand end of the network connected thereto propagates along said network towards the right and could in the absence of said magnetron give rise to negative voltage at the right hand end of said network on reflection therefrom as described with reference to Figure 1. Thus, if the magnetron 3 drew no current, then its cathode would be lowered to a voltage -V while its anode would remain at a voltage +V, so that effectively a voltage higher than that to which the networks were originally charged would be developed across said magnetron 3. The characteristic impedance of each of the networks is preferably arranged to be equal to half the operating impedance of the magnetron 3 so that as said magnetron 3 draws current, its impedance matches that of the two networks in series and one half of the open circuit voltage which would in the absence of said magnetron 3 be developed is set up across said magnetron 3. Thus, with this arrangement a voltage equal to that to which each of the networks was charged is actually developed across the magnetron 3.

Turning now to Figure 4, it will be seen that this differs from Figure 3 in that the circuit has been re-arranged to permit the anode of the magnetron 3 to be earthed and a further terminated time delay network comprising the shunt capacities 1b and series inductance 2b replaced the inductance 10. This arrangement offers the further advantage that the time delay network replacing the inductance 10 can be arrange to provide a positive voltage pulse across the magnetron 3 in a short time after said magnetron 3 has been excited and will therefore prevent re-excitation of said magnetron 3 by any subsidiary negative pulses which may be developed due to reflections in the time delay networks comprising elements 1, 2 and 1a, 2a. For this purpose, the third time delay network comprising elements 1b and 2b is preferably terminated by resistive termination of low or even zero value and when so terminated has a further advantage of providing in shunt with the magnetron 3 a constant resistive impedance at the component frequencies of the pulses, thus avoiding distortion of the pulse waveform which may arise in the arrangement of Figure 3 due to the change of impedance of the inductance 10 with frequency.

It will be understood that in the arrangement shown in Figure 4 the earth capacity of the network comprising elements 1a and 2a and the earth capacity of the heater transformer winding for the device 5, if such is provided, may constitute part of thew hole of the right hand capacity element 1. Further, the heater of the cathode of the magnetron 3 may be fed from a winding coupled to that feeding the heater of the device 5 and the capacity between said windings may then form the whole or part of the left hand capacity element 1a.

It will be understood that since the time delay networks above referred to will inevitably have some losses, the voltages obtained will not be quite equal to the charging voltage. Further, as it is desirable to leave a slight negative voltage on the device 4 in order to ensure extinction, the characteristic impedance of the time delay network comprising elements 1 and 2 is preferably made slightly higher than that of the time delay network comprising elements 1a and 2a, so as to cause a suitable extinction voltage to be reflected back to said device 4. Further the operation of the system may in some cases be improved by make the time delay of these two networks slightly dissimilar. For example, the time delay network comprising elements 1 and 2 may be given a 10% longer time delay and a 10% lower characteristic impedance compared with the time delay network comprising elements 1a and 2a.

Although the invention has been described with reference to the excitation of a load such as a magnetron, it will be appreciated that it is generally applicable to the feeding of electrical impulses of short duration and high voltage to any form of load such as to dissipate the stored energy in a relatively short time.

Dated this 9th day of October, 1941.

F. W. CACKETT.

Chartered Patent Agent.

COMPLETE SPECIFICATION

Improvements in or relating to Apparatus for Generating Electrical Impulses

I, DOREEN BLUMLEIN, a British Subject, of Lanherne, Lescudjaek, Penzance, Cornwall, legal representative of ALAN DOWER BLUMLEIN, deceased, late of 37, The Ridings, Ealing, London, W.5, a British Subject, do hereby declare the nature of this invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, to be particularly described and ascertained in and by the following statement:-

The present invention relates to apparatus for generating electrical impulses.

It is frequently necessary to apply electrical impulses of high voltage and short duration to apparatus such as, for example, radio transmitters used for transmitting short pulses of radio frequency oscillations in the detection of reflecting objects such as aircraft.

It is the object of the present invention to provide an improved apparatus for generating electrical impulses of high voltage and short duration.

According to one feature of the present invention there is provided apparatus for generating electrical impulses comprising a storage device including capacity and inductance, charging means for charging the capacity of said storage device, a switch connected to said device and adapted to provide a path of low resistance and a uni-laterally conducting load associated with said storage device in such a manner that if said charging means is caused to charge said device, the polarity of the voltage across said capacity is such as to render said load non-conducting, the arrangement being such that if after said device has been charged said switch is caused to provide a path of low resistance, the charge ins said device is re-distributed so that the polarity of the voltage across said capacity is reversed whereupon said load becomes conducting and dissipates the energy stored in said device.

A further object of the present invention is to provide improved apparatus for generating electrical impulses of high voltage and short duration in which higher voltages may be applied to the load.

According to another feature of the present invention therefore there is provided apparatus for generating electrical impulses comprising a first storage device including capacity and inductance, a second storage device including capacity, a load connected between said storage devices, charging means for charging said storage devices in the same sense, and a switch adapted to provide a path of low resistance associated with said first storage device, the arrangement being such that if said storage devices are charged by said charging means and said switch is then caused to provide a path of low resistance, the energy is said first storage device is redistributed so that the polarity of the voltage across the capacity thereof is reversed and is applied in series with the voltage across the capacity of said second storage device across said load, whereby the voltage across said load is increased.

According to a further feature of the invention there is provided apparatus for generating electrical impulses comprising a plurality of time delay networks, charging means for charging the capacity of said networks in the same sense, a switch adapted to provide a path of low resistance across one of said networks and a load so connected between said networks that if said networks are charged by said charging means and said switch is then caused to provide a path of low resistance, voltage wave propagate along said networks and a pulse of high voltage is developed across said lad due to the superposition of voltage waves reversed in sense by reflection upon voltage waves of the same polarity as that to which said networks were charged.

In order that the invention may be clearly understood and readily carried into effect, the same will now be described more fully with reference to the drawings accompanying the Provisional Specification, in which:-

Figure 1 shows a schematic circuit diagram of one form of the invention utilising a time delay network for reversing the polarity of the voltage of the impulses; and

Figure 2 shows a schematic circuit diagram of an alternative arrangement for reversing the polarity of the voltage of the impulses; and

Figures 3 and 4 show the schematic circuit diagrams of arrangements utilising two time delay networks for generating voltage impulses of greater amplitude.

Referring now to Figure 1 of the drawings accompanying the Provisional Specification it will be seen that the arrangement shown comprises a time delay network having shunt capacity elements 1 and series inductance elements 2, a load 3 connected to one end of said network, said load 3 being shown diagrammatically as a magnetron short wave oscillator, and a switch 4 adapter to provide a path of low resistance consisting of a low impedance gas discharge tube such as hat known under the registered trademark "Thyratron", connected across the other end of said network. Also connected to the same end of said network as said switch is a unilaterally connecting device 5 in series with the winding 6 of a transformer to which is coupled a further winding 7 connected to a source of alternating voltage (not shown). The grid circuit of the device 4 includes transformer secondary 8 coupled to a further transformer primary 9 which is connected to a source of switching pulses (not shown). The cathode of the device 4 and the anode of the device 3 are earthed and one plate of each of the shunt condensers 1 of the network is also earthed.

The arrangement operates as follows. When the voltage developed across the inductance 6 is positive, current flows through the device 5 and changes the capacities 1 of the time delay network, the polarity of the voltage developed across said capacities being such that the device 3 remains non-conducting. After said capacities have been charged and the voltage across the inductance 6 has become negative to render the device 5 non-conducting, a switching pulse is applied to the grid of the device 4 and causes the anode impedance of said device to fall to a very low value. The voltage across the left-hand end of said time delay network thus falls rapidly to zero and this falling voltage propagates as a wave along the said network from left to right. On reaching the right-hand end of said network, said voltage wave would in the absence of said lad 3 be reflected as a negative voltage wave of equal amplitude so that the voltage across the right-hand end of said network would fall from V to -V, V being the voltage to which the capacity 1 of said network was originally charged. The device 3, however, becomes conducting when the voltage across the right-hand end of said network becomes negative and the energy of the negative voltage impulse developed as a result of the redistribution of the charge due to the reflection of the wave is therefore dissipated in said device 3 and causes said device to generate a short pulse of radio frequency oscillations.

It will be appreciated that this arrangement has the advantage that the cathode of the device 4 and the anode of the device 3 can be earthed directly, thus avoiding undesirable effects due to stray capacities between these electrodes and earth and also avoiding the necessity for special insulation of the cathode heating current supply to the device 4.

Referring now to Figure 2 of the drawings, it will be seen that the time delay network comprising elements 1 and 2 of Figure 1 has been replaced by a single capacity 1 and a single inductance 2, the remaining elements of the circuit being numbered to correspond with similar elements in Figure 1. In the arrangement shown in Figure 2, the reversal of the voltage across the condenser 1 is obtained by causing a half cycle of self-oscillation between the capacity 1 and the inductance 2. Thus, the condenser 1 is charged as before through the uni-laterally conducting device 5 and subsequently the device 4 is rendered conducting and the inductance 2 is thereby connected in shunt with the capacity 1 so forming an oscillatory circuit in which an oscillatory current flows as the charge in the capacity 1 discharges through inductance 2. It will be seen that after said oscillatory circuit has preformed a quarter oscillation the voltage across the condenser 1 reverses and is then of suitable polarity to excite the magnetron 3 so that as a result of the redistribution of the charge the energy in the system can then be dissipated in said magnetron 3 and cause said magnetron to generate a short pulse of radio frequency oscillations.

The apparatus described above which provides means for reversing the polarity of the voltage across the capacity before the energy is dissipated in the load may be combined with further apparatus operating without reversal of polarity so as to apply to a load a voltage substantially equal to twice the voltage which each apparatus is separately capable of applying to said load. Two examples of apparatus of this kind will now be described with reference to Figures 3 and 4 in which elements corresponding to elements in Figures 1 and 2 have been given similar reference numerals. Referring to Figure 3, it will be seen that this arrangement differs from that of Figure 1 in that a second time delay network having shunt capacities 1a and series inductance 2a has been introduced. The magnetron 3 has its cathode connected to the right-hand end of the network comprising elements 1 and 2 as before and has its anode connected to the left-hand end of the second delay network comprising capacity elements 1a and the inductance elements 2a. The choke 10 is connected in shunt with the magnetron and is of such a value that it presents an impedance large compared with the resistance of the magnetron 3 when conducting at the component frequencies of the pulse waveform which is in operation applied to the magnetron while at the same time presenting a relatively low impedance to currents having a frequency of the same order as that of the charging current for the charging capacity elements 1, 1a.

This arrangement operates as follows. During the charging cycle, current flows through the unilaterally conducting device 5 and charges the capacities 1 and 1a of the two time delay networks. When the device 4 is rendered conducting, the voltage drop which arises at the left-hand end of the network connected thereto propagates along said network towards the right. When it reaches the magnetron 3, it is reflected in reversed sense and causes the magnetron to become conducting, with the result that the original voltage drop is in part transmitted through the magnetron into the network 2a and in part reflected in reversed sense back into the network 2. The cathode of the magnetron is thus held at a negative voltage while its anode remains positive due to the voltage on the network 2a, and this state of affairs persists until the transmitted and reflected waves are reflected at the right-hand end of the network 2a and the left-hand end of network 2 respectively and return to the magnetron 3, whereupon the voltage across the magnetron collapses. It will thus be seen that due to the super-imposition of voltage waves reversed in sense by reflection upon voltage waves of the same polarity as that to which the networks 2, 2a were charged, a pulse of high voltage is developed across the magnetron 3. The time delays of each of the networks are preferably equal and their characteristic impedances are preferably arranged to be equal to half the operating impedance of the magnetron 3 so that as said magnetron 3 draws current, its impedance matches that of the two networks in series and one half of the open circuit voltage which would in the absence of said magnetron 3 be developed is set up across said magnetron 3. Thus, with this arrangement the voltage developed across the magnetron is doubled and becomes substantially equal to that to which each of the networks was charged.

In one case in which it was desired to apply impulses of 20 kilovolts to a load having a resistance of 800 ohms when conducting, each impulse having a duration of 2 microseconds, each of the time delay networks 2, 2a was designed to have a delay time of 1 microsecond and consisted of 25 shunt capacity elements, having a capacity of 100 micro-micro-farads and 24 series inductance units, each having a self-inductance of 13.5 microhenries, together with two half sections having a self-inductance of 8 microhenries. Adjacent inductance elements were coupled together in known manner so as to give the networks a more uniform delay/frequency characteristic, and, when coupled together, each pair of inductance elements had a combined inductance of 32 microhenries. The inductance 10 had a value of 40 mill-henries and was sub-divided into six units in order to reduce shunt capacity and also to distribute the voltage stress across the inductance.

Turning now to Figure 4, it will be seen that the circuit shown differs from that of Figure 3 in two respects. First, the magnetron 3 and the series elements 2a, have been transferred from the high voltage line to the earthed line of the right-hand network, so that the common earthed conductor to which the shunt elements 1 are connected is connected through the magnetron 3 to the series elements 2a and the common conductor to which the shunt elements 1a are connected is connected to the series elements 2. This arrangement has the advantages that the anode of the magnetron 3 is earthed and the earth capacity of the right-hand network and also the earth capacity of the heater transformer winding for the device 5 if such is provided may constitute part or the whole of the right-hand shunt element 1 of the left-hand network. Further, if the heater of the cathode of the magnetron 3 is fed from a winding coupled to that feeding the heater of the device 5, the capacity between said windings can form the whole or a part of the left-hand shunt element 1a of the right-hand network.

Secondly, it will be seen that a further terminated time delay network comprising the shunt capacities 1b and series inductances 2b replaces the inductance 10 included in the circuit of Figure 3. This arrangement offers the advantage that the further time delay network can be arranged to provide a positive voltage pulse across the magnetron 3 a short time after said magnetron 3 has been excited and will therefore prevent re-excitation of said magnetron 3 by any subsidiary negative pulses which may be developed due to reflections in the time delay networks comprising elements 1, 2 and 1a, 2a. For this purpose, the further time delay network is preferably terminated by resistive termination of low or even zero value and when so terminated has a further advantage of providing in shunt with the magnetron 3 a constant resistive impedance at the component frequencies of the pulses, thus avoiding distortion of the pulse waveform which may arise in the arrangement of Figure 3 due to the change of impedance of the inductance 10 with frequency.

It will be understood that since the time delay networks above referred to will inevitably have some losses, the voltage obtained will not be quite equal to the charging voltage. Further, as it is desirable to leave a slight negative voltage on the device 4 in order to ensure extinction, the characteristic impedance of the time delay network comprising elements 1 and 2 is preferably made slightly higher than that of the time delay network comprising elements 1a, 2a, so as to cause a suitable extinction voltage to be reflected back to said device 4. Further, the operation of the system may in some cases be improved by making the time delay and characteristic impedance of these tow networks slightly dissimilar. For example, the time delay network comprising elements 1 and 2 may be given a 10% longer time delay and a 10% lower characteristic impedance compared with the time delay network comprising elements 1a and 2a.

It will be appreciated that, although in the examples of the invention above referred to a low impedance gas discharge tube has been shows as the switch adapted to provide a path of low resistance, other devices may be used for this purpose. For example, a spark gap may be used, and the gap may either be of the self-sparking rotary kind in which two electrodes are caused to approach closely to each other so as to cause a spark to pass between them, or, alternatively, the spark gap may be of the stationary kind and may be provided with a trigger electrode which causes the path between the main electrodes to breakdown to a low resistance when a suitable voltage is applied to the trigger electrode.

If desired, the capacity of the time delay network or other storage device may be charged through an inductance forming therewith a series circuit resonant at the frequency of the source of alternating voltage so that the capacity is charged to twice the peak voltage of said source. In this case, the unilaterally conducting device 5 may be omitted due to the presence of the inductance between the storage device and the source of alternating voltage.

Although the invention has been described with reference to the excitation of a unilaterally conducting load such as a magnetron, it will be appreciated that if a form of the invention such as that described with reference to Figure 3 or 4 of the drawings accompanying the Provisional Specification, in which substantially no voltage is developed across the load during charging, is used, any form of load suitable for dissipating the stored energy in relatively short time may be employed.

Having now particularly described and ascertained that nature of my said invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, I declare that what I claim is:-

  1. Apparatus for generating electrical impulses comprising a storage device including capacity and inductance, charging means for charging the capacity of said storage device, a switch connected to said device and adapted to provide a path of low resistance and a unilaterally conducting load associated with said storage device in such a manner that if said charging means care caused to charge said device the polarity of the voltage across said capacity is such as to render said load non-conducting, the arrangement being such that if after said device has been charged said switch is caused to provide a path of low resistance, the charge in said device is re-distributed so that the polarity of the voltage across said capacity is reversed whereupon said load becomes conducting and dissipates the energy stored in said device.
  2. Apparatus according to Claim 1 in which said storage device is a time delay network and said switch and said load are respectively connected across opposite ends of said network, the re-distribution of said energy taking place by propagation of waves along said network.
  3. Apparatus according to Claim 1 in which the inductance and capacity of said storage device are connected in series with said switch and said load is connected in shunt with said capacity, the re-distribution of said energy taking place by self-oscillation of said inductance with said capacity.
  4. Apparatus for generating electrical impulses comprising a first storage device including capacity and inductance, a second storage device including capacity, a load connected between said storage devices, charging means for charging said storage devices in the same sense, and a switch adapted to provide a path of low resistance associated with said first storage device, the arrangement being such that if said storage devices are charged by said charging means and said switch is then caused to provide a path of low resistance the energy in said first storage device is re-distributed so that the polarity of the voltage across the capacity thereof is reversed and is applied in series with the voltage across the capacity of said second storage device across said load, whereby the voltage across said load is increased.
  5. Apparatus for generating electrical impulses comprising a plurality of time delay networks, charging means for charging the capacity of said networks in the same sense, a switch adapted to provide a path of low resistance across one of said networks, and a load so connected between said networks that if said networks are charged by said charging means and said switch is then caused to provide a path of low resistance, voltage waves propagate along said network and a pulse of high voltage is developed across said lad due to the superposition of voltage waves reversed in sense by reflection upon voltage waves of the same polarity as that to which said networks were charged.
  6. Apparatus according to Claim 5 comprising two time delay networks having substantially the same time delay and characteristic impedance, and in which the resistance of said load when dissipating energy is equal to twice said characteristic impedance.
  7. Apparatus according to Claim 6 in which the shunt elements of each of said networks are connected to common conductors, the common conductor of the network across one end of which said switch is connected being earthed and connected via said load to the series elements of the other of said network and the common conductor of the other of said networks being connected to the series elements of said first-mentioned network.
  8. Apparatus according to Claim 5, 6 or 7 in which said load is unilaterally conducting and is connected so as to be substantially non-conducting during the charging of said networks and in which an impedance high compared with the resistance of said load when dissipating energy is connected in parallel with said load so that in operation said charging means charges the capacity of one of said networks directly and charges the capacity of the other of said networks via said impedance.
  9. Apparatus according to Claim 8 in which said impedance is a terminated time delay network.
  10. Apparatus according to any of the preceding claims in which said switch comprises a gas discharge triode or spark gap and means for causing said triode or park gap to break down so as to provide said low resistance.
  11. Apparatus according to any of the preceding claims in which said charging means comprises a source of alternating current and a unilaterally conducting device connecting said source to said storage device.
  12. Apparatus according to Claim 1 and substantially as described with reference to Figure 1 or Figure 2 of the drawings accompanying the Provisional Specification.
  13. Apparatus according to Claim 5 and substantially as described with reference to Figure 3 or Figure 4 of the drawings accompanying the Provisional Specification.

Dated this 8th day of October, 1942.

F. W. CACKETT.

Chartered Patent Agent

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Leamington Spa: Printed for His Majesty’s Stationery Office, by the Courier Press. - 1947. Published at The Patent Office, 25, Southampton Buildings, London, W.C.2, from which copies price 1s. 0d. each (inland) 1s. 1d. (abroad) may be obtained.